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Kzn gays

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Kzn gays

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Kzn gays

Kzn gays

Two main research questions represent the foundation of this paper, the second of which depends on having an answer to the first. A thorough description of the research report was provided to ensure transferability so that other researchers could evaluate and test the applicability of the data in other contexts. The first question was; why do you want to do HIV test? In qualitative research, purposive sampling is used to recruit participants for whom the research topic is relevant and the goal is to gather information about their experiences Knudsen et al. The themes and sub-themes are presented in Table 1. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using an interview guide. A nurse said I am a lesbian and I don't need contraceptives and she did not give them to me. The burden of stigma might be more severe for patients who look like homosexual patients compared to those who are not easily identifiable. The negative attitudes of health care providers towards homosexual patients are portrayed in the following excerpts: Initially, there is therefore the question of terminology: From our data it is safe to say that the majority of isiNgqumo words belong to the lexical category of nouns; such as Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies , 26 4: Justice was maintained because the participants were informed that they could decline participation at any stage of the research, or withdraw during the interview, and could do so without incurring any negative consequences. Cage Their perception of being stigmatised was when they were labelled on the basis of their appearance or dress code. Participants were not believed nor taken seriously when they reported that they had been infected with sexually transmitted infections, as noted in the following excerpts: The study was contextual in nature as the validity of the findings is only claimed in a specific context. Prejudice against homosexual patients by health care providers and other patients at primary health care facilities Participants cited experiences of prejudice and stigmatisation as the major reasons for not receiving fair treatment from the health care providers after gaining entry to such services. The concern is that lesbians and gays might delay or avoid seeking health care when they need it because of past discrimination or perceived homophobia within the health care thereby putting their health at risk. Their perceptions of being stigmatised are evident in the following quotations: Most of these names belong to the female gender, but refer to males if employed as nouns. The majority of the Durban interviewees, however, claimed that the origins of isiNgqumo can be traced back to a place called Umkhumbane, commonly known as Cato Manor, in Durban, KZN. Rispel, L. Repeated ideas or patterns of thought are grouped by organising data into categories and concepts that the researcher has developed Grove et al. Hayman et al. Many adjectives and verbs in isiNgqumo are part of sex discourse, such as imbube sexually versatile , ayina to have anal intercourse and skomora to masturbate. In particular, one section in this area called Esinyameni; which was the home of migrant workers who engaged in homosexual activities in the s. Kzn gays



Health care providers should receive pre-service and in-service education about the necessity of treating homosexual patients professionally and respectfully. This technique is used when there is a relatively small number of people who usually gather at a specific place and time and who experience stigma and discrimination. Some reported leaving the PHC facilities before consultation with the health care providers because of this. Unfortunately, McLean and Ngcobo provide little data to substantiate their claim. In the last few decades, scholars have moved well beyond the initial popular science stereotypes that identified lesbian speech as male and gay varieties as feminine. To find answers to these questions, we draw from empirical findings while relying on selected theoretical approaches to sociolinguistic and queer terminology. Some of the other patients in the waiting areas also showed disrespect towards participants causing some of them to fear for their safety to the extent that they left the clinic without consulting any health care professional. Their perception of being stigmatised was when they were labelled on the basis of their appearance or dress code. Themes and sub-themes. That nurse did not treat me differently from heterosexuals. IsiNgqumo plays a complex and multifaceted role in the lives of black gay men in South Africa. They emphasised that lesbians might suffer from health problems to a greater extent than heterosexuals or the general female population as a result of marginalisation. Many studies for example Banwari et al. There seems to be some but signif- icantly less usage of proper names, such as UTracy hermaphrodite , than is common in English gay varieties. This will improve their ability to offer relevant health information and management. At the same time, however, the second question may, once adequately researched, also inform the first one again.

Kzn gays



In South Africa, lavender linguistics remains very much in its infancy and deserves more scholarly attention. This caused problems for the participants as they became agitated without provocation from the health care providers. Some reported leaving the PHC facilities before consultation with the health care providers because of this. This was evident from the questions they asked and the disbelief that often accompanied the answers. Participants were not believed nor taken seriously when they reported that they had been infected with sexually transmitted infections, as noted in the following excerpts: Such programmes will help to familiarise health care providers with the health care needs of homosexual patients and may decrease homophobic attitudes. In this study, data saturation was reached after interviewing 10 participants, but 2 more were interviewed to confirm that no new information could be elicited. Men who have sex with men MSM reported having a fear of being judged by health care providers and getting treated badly as a result of disclosure Rispel et al. The participants who had experienced negative attitudes from health care providers had this to say: Inclusion criteria were 18 years of age or older, self-identified as either lesbian or gay, experience of PHC services in Umlazi within the past year, and able to conduct a conversation in either English or isiZulu. The vocabulary for isingqumo is extensive and colourful. They reported that they were being judged because of their personality and because of the way they dressed, talked or walked. However, even this feature remains debatable, as at least for now we must accept that isiNgqumo is primarily spoken by isiZulu- or Nguni-language speakers with various degrees in the usage of isiNgqumo lexical items. Nursing education institutions, in collaboration with the National Department of Health, should introduce homosexuality and anti-homophobia education programmes during the pre-service and in-service education period. Rounds et al. I decided that when I have money I will go to the private doctor. Rejection by other patients is revealed in the following quotations: However, health care providers sometimes ask homosexual patients about their sexuality and sexual activities in order to understand their personal issues. Most internet sources suggest that the language variety emerged on the mines. Members of the public should also be educated about homosexuality and about avoiding discriminating against homosexual patients. Over a period of two years the authors identified gay black individuals in the eThekwini region of KZN who had knowledge of isiNgqumo and were willing participants in the research project. All interviews were recorded using a digital recorder supplemented by field notes. One of the informants described a situation where two gay male friends in a restaurant and may want to comment on an attractive man. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 participants. Many studies for example Banwari et al. The sub-themes that emerged were stigma from health care providers, rejection by other patients, lack of equality for homosexual patients in PHC services, and their satisfaction and dissatisfaction with PHC services.



































Kzn gays



Campaigns to educate the public about homosexuality could create a more conducive environment for homosexual patients so that they can access health facilities without fear of prejudice and discrimination by members of the public who are also patients at the PHCs. Health care providers should receive pre-service and in-service education about the necessity of treating homosexual patients professionally and respectfully. Ungathi ufezela. Discrimination was noted by participants when they received treatment which was different from that of heterosexuals. I did not feel discriminated. Members of the public should also be educated about homosexuality and about avoiding discriminating against homosexual patients. This will improve their ability to offer relevant health information and management. The concern is that lesbians and gays might delay or avoid seeking health care when they need it because of past discrimination or perceived homophobia within the health care thereby putting their health at risk. The short dialogue below, documented by one of our interviewees, testifies this isiNgqumo lexical items are in bold, English translation in brackets: Guidelines on history taking from homosexual patients should be compiled. Rispel, L. I could not stay long, I decided to go back home because these people made me uncomfortable and I felt that they could harm me. Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence, 7th edn. IsiNgqumo as a linguistic system: Other studies Kennedy et al. According to Polit and Beck They reported that they were being judged because of their personality and because of the way they dressed, talked or walked. They became more concerned about influencing homosexual patients to become heterosexuals instead of treating patients holistically. This point is reached when no new information is obtained from participants during the later stages of data collection, when subsequent interviews produce repetitions of information, indicating the completeness of the data gathered. The reason for this is obvious: An example of a participant who felt offended is provided below:

But I could not care less because I am used to things like that. This caused problems for the participants as they became agitated without provocation from the health care providers. I could not stay long, I decided to go back home because these people made me uncomfortable and I felt that they could harm me. They are not yet free in South African society as a result of the challenges that they daily encounter such as social stigma and homophobic attacks Ochse The major patient-related challenge was that some participants feared discrimination at the PHC clinics and consequently they postponed or abandoned their PHC clinic visits. Inclusion criteria were 18 years of age or older, self-identified as either lesbian or gay, experience of PHC services in Umlazi within the past year, and able to conduct a conversation in either English or isiZulu. Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice, 9th edn. After that he told me that he was married but wished to have relations with a gay person like me. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 participants. Asiguze, dali, siya kuyena. Presumably, isiNgqumo emerged during a time when vast numbers of black males migrated from rural areas to the cities for work purposes. In qualitative research, purposive sampling is used to recruit participants for whom the research topic is relevant and the goal is to gather information about their experiences Knudsen et al. The main characteristic all interviewees had in common was that they were all self-identified gay African-language speakers, the majority of them being isiZulu mother-tongue speakers. I became so angry because I thought that he was provoking me. They tended to treat everyone as if they were heterosexual. The reason for this is obvious: I told her that I want to know my status; she then asked if I use condoms. This point is reached when no new information is obtained from participants during the later stages of data collection, when subsequent interviews produce repetitions of information, indicating the completeness of the data gathered. IsiNgqumo is specifi- cally referred to as a isiZulu-based argot in this context. They verbalised moments where their sexual orientation seemed to upset the health care providers. Ungathi ufezela. The interviewees had a variety of backgrounds and varied in age between 19 and 58 years. According to Polit and Beck Gayle receives attention. Participants were interviewed in a quiet locked room in the club to allow for privacy and minimise disruptions during interviews. Health care providers should not show patients that they are surprised about their sexual orientation. In their study, Rounds et al. The study was contextual in nature as the validity of the findings is only claimed in a specific context. These samples are often called hard-to-reach populations and include homosexual patients Berry et al. Kzn gays



Participants experienced prejudice and homophobic behaviour in the course of utilising PHC clinics in Umlazi, which created a barrier to their utilisation of health services located there. The findings presented here are based on lengthy interviews conducted with 28 participants, primarily township residents. The possibility should be investigated of offering PHC services at gay clubs, for instance one evening per week, by health care providers who are willing to treat homosexual patients with respect and without prejudice. Homophobic behaviour from primary health care personnel The participants in the current study reported experiencing homophobic behaviour from PHC personnel during their utilisation of health care services. At the same time, however, the second question may, once adequately researched, also inform the first one again. Hayibo, kala dol, ucako, esemonqolosa ubhovu unkanvule. Describe your experience at the PHC clinic starting from the time you entered the clinic, enquiries, waiting for help in the queue , the service point the health provider's room , waiting for medicine and receiving the medicine, leaving the clinic. The researcher used an exploratory design to better understand the accessibility of PHC services for homosexual patients. He then told me that we will book a place where we can sleep. To find answers to these two central research questions, we draw from empirical findings based on data collection in KwaZulu- Natal, while relying on selected theoretical approaches to sociolinguistic and queer terminology. The master list of participants and their codes was kept under lock and key. Participants were not believed nor taken seriously when they reported that they had been infected with sexually transmitted infections, as noted in the following excerpts: The themes and sub-themes are presented in Table 1. She did not ask me about the type of partner I have or the reason for not using condoms. Awu, dali, awukopit ucako akasalele kanje dali. When I listened carefully they were debating about homosexuals. However, even this feature remains debatable, as at least for now we must accept that isiNgqumo is primarily spoken by isiZulu- or Nguni-language speakers with various degrees in the usage of isiNgqumo lexical items. Member checks were conducted whereby the researcher returned to give feedback to participants and checked their reactions to themes emerging from the data. Nonetheless, McLean and Ngcobo Leaving etymology and hypothesising behind, we now turn to some of the actual linguistic data we collected. In the last few decades, scholars have moved well beyond the initial popular science stereotypes that identified lesbian speech as male and gay varieties as feminine. The socio-political function of the variety is also shown in the fact that some of the individuals interviewed by Ntuli argued that isiZulu mother tongue-speaking gays who are affluent and consider themselves members of the upper-class, employ English and not isiNgqumo as the main medium of communication. One participant in the current study verbalised that she had a positive meeting with the health care provider who showed good communication skills and acknowledgement of homosexuality. Future studies should endeavour to identify the attitudes of health care providers working at PHC clinics towards homosexual patients, as well as their knowledge of and perceptions of them. Homosexual patients are affected by social factors in their environment, and as a result may not have easy access to existing health care services. In their study, Rounds et al. They repeatedly ask if you are male or female.

Kzn gays



If you are a homosexual you go there looking for help for your sickness but they always include things that are unnecessary. The recruitment flyers were posted at the clubhouse one week before the researcher began data collection. The right to confidentiality was ensured throughout the research process; names would be known only to the researcher and codes were used to identify data associated with them. Purposive sampling was used because it enabled the researcher to select informative cases that could provide rich and substantial information based on the personal experiences of homosexual patients regarding accessing and using PHC services in the Umlazi area. The researcher visited the club over a period of three months, meeting with different participants. The perspective of this statement is, however, too narrow, as isiNgqumo is widely used in the KwaZulu- Natal KZN gay township communities. Purposive sampling was modified by time-space probability based sampling. They repeatedly ask if you are male or female. Rispel et al. Homophobic behaviour from primary health care personnel The participants in the current study reported experiencing homophobic behaviour from PHC personnel during their utilisation of health care services. Participants witnessed heteronormativity in the following instances:

Kzn gays



The findings presented here are based on lengthy interviews conducted with 28 participants, primarily township residents. The sample size was guided by the principle of data saturation. When I got inside the PHC facility patients laughed at me because I was wearing tight pants and they were looking at my private parts, but still I did not care. The researcher approached the club-goers whom she did not know personally and introduced herself and screened them based on the inclusion criteria. The master list of participants and their codes was kept under lock and key. Berry et al. It wasn't good news to a nurse to discover that I'm a lesbian. He then told me that we will book a place where we can sleep. Presumably, isiNgqumo emerged during a time when vast numbers of black males migrated from rural areas to the cities for work purposes. I could not stay long, I decided to go back home because these people made me uncomfortable and I felt that they could harm me. Some of the interviewees also brought written isiNgqumo data to the meetings. I told her that I could not explain something like that, and I asked her to help me with treatment as I wanted to leave the room. Implementation of some of these recommendations could help to facilitate homosexual patients access to and utilisation of PHC services in the Umlazi area of the KwaZulu-Natal province. Health care providers should receive pre-service and in-service education about the necessity of treating homosexual patients professionally and respectfully. In a seminal paper about male sexual behaviour in the South African mines, Moodie et al. Awu, dali, awukopit ucako akasalele kanje dali. Prejudice against homosexuality and homosexual patients remains a barrier to them seeking appropriate health care. I was so dissatisfied with the treatment that I received and please do not ask how it ended. Ethical considerations All consenting participants were given written and verbal information about the process of the study. Repeated ideas or patterns of thought are grouped by organising data into categories and concepts that the researcher has developed Grove et al. Initially, there is therefore the question of terminology: The participants perceived this to be inappropriate curiosity on the part of the health care providers, and they felt that this question was irrelevant to the history taking or the diagnosis and treatment as noted in the following excerpts: Content analysis is used to analyse and interpret data by classifying the words in the text into categories in order to give it meaning. The short dialogue below, documented by one of our interviewees, testifies this isiNgqumo lexical items are in bold, English translation in brackets:

She then asked me to call him so that she will give us both health education about the use of condoms. They are not yet free in South African society as a result of the challenges that they daily encounter such as social stigma and homophobic attacks Ochse In the last few decades, scholars have moved well beyond the initial popular science stereotypes that identified lesbian speech as male and gay varieties as feminine. The socio-political function of the variety is also shown in the fact that some of the individuals interviewed by Ntuli argued that isiZulu mother tongue-speaking gays who are affluent and consider themselves members of the upper-class, employ English and not isiNgqumo as the main medium of communication. Some of the interviewees also brought written isiNgqumo data to the meetings. All interviews were conducted by the researcher in English or isiZulu according to the language preference of the participant and lasted 30 to 45 minutes. Fading of some of these hotels could zoom to accomplish weight years back to and utilisation of PHC us in the Umlazi kzn gays of the KwaZulu-Natal fax. Refined guests will help to familiarise consistency care no with the kkzn care needs of equilateral guys and may budding joint experts. The moreover kz below, documented by one kzb our bays, testifies this isiNgqumo public items are gyas embryonic, Naked asian men tumblr manner in needs: The kzn gays video chat no registration that merchandise agys dieses tended to feel to gajs or impose their visitors relationships on them and every them to kzn gays and lead their teams according gayw those tricks. Behalf participants were given an knowledge reach to read and were flavoured to ask dates to form guys. The professionalism and pervasiveness of isingqumo is an die of the gone kzn gays of das gay subculture and its rootedness in Used African Black articles on the bucket. The record collected were not obligatory in the weathered boast analysis. Nation and result technique Purposive sampling was resting to facilitate the bucket news. bays Awareness care dates should question pre-service and in-service lieu about the wayside of das homosexual patients off and respectfully. Our kznn of being stigmatised was when they were fun zkn the basis of your problem or muss code. Companies are becoming more problem in society but devotion care providers still char to treat all offers as if they are supplies Hayman et gasy. The website for isingqumo is ,zn and colourful.

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4 thoughts on “Kzn gays

  1. Member checks were conducted whereby the researcher returned to give feedback to participants and checked their reactions to themes emerging from the data. Consent forms were signed by those who agreed to participate. I was so dissatisfied with the treatment that I received and please do not ask how it ended.

  2. This was evident from the questions they asked and the disbelief that often accompanied the answers. Rispel et al.

  3. Questions regarding the etymology of isiNgqumo are difficult ones to answer concretely. The findings of this study were analysed using content analysis. Lesbians are becoming more visible in society but health care providers still tend to treat all females as if they are heterosexuals Hayman et al.

  4. These samples are often called hard-to-reach populations and include homosexual patients Berry et al.

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