McGraw-Hill Press. Motivational patterns related to alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems. When Grover split the data between the two groups all the original hypotheses were supported, except H2c. Refutational preemption provides specific content that receivers can employ to strengthen attitudes against subsequent change. In the early stages of scholarship on inoculation theory, then, attention was directed toward theoretical advancement rather than application of the theory to health. Stone , for the most part, did not find significant difference in the effect of inoculation messages based on gender. Kirby, Douglas and Richard P. Plenum Press. Dillard and M. No conclusions drawn about specific health topics McGuire and Papageorgis, students in rhetoric courses at University of Illinois, USA Mixed design involving 4 conditions base belief, control, writing defense, reading defense Issues were collapsed for analyses. The authors speculated that low power of the test might be responsible for the results. Cameron posits: Instead, motivated individuals go a step further by identifying new challenges they proceed to refute and by increasing their ability, via counter-attitudinal practice, to defend against challenges not previously encountered. There are also scholars on the other side who suggest that too much of a delay lessens the strengthening effect of inoculation. Theory 19, 9— For example, the Scott Peterson murder trial received such significant coverage Rooney, and witnessed global plagiarism of news stories, their titles, and information about the key members in the trial i. One additional social-based and normative appeal video should be applied to bolster or reinforce the nascent inoculation treatments. Discussion, Limitations, and Future Directions What this paper has demonstrated is that the nature of inoculation theory can make journalists more resistant to pack journalistic attitudes and practices. Historically speaking, pack journalism coverage that involved such copycat reporting also included, in a nutshell, the murder of James Byrd, Jr. Perspectives, processes, and contexts, New York: Kalbfleisch Ed , Communication yearbook 29, Mahwah:
Other recent areas of study include vaccination safety. Interestingly, the authors also put forward or posit the idea that self-esteem is an important factor in this equation. In essence, inoculation is a sort of mental immunization process against external, attitudinal influences that are typically undesirable to those who seek to be and sustain such morally or ethically sound. Available online at: Pfau Eds , The persuasion handbook: Defined as the salience or importance for the receiver of an attitude object Pfau et al. Hale and D. Threat and Refutational Preemption Besides a general framework of inoculation theory, it [the theory] has two significant elements: Alternatively, they suggested, the lack of significant findings could be the result of how involvement has been operationalized in previous inoculation studies, which mainly has consisted of embedding involvement in the topic rather than experimentally manipulating it in the messages. According to Pfau , refutational preemption is represented by potential attacks to current attitudes that are initially addressed and subsequently preempted. The teen subjects were given resources to combat attempts to persuade them to drink and drive or to get into a vehicle with a drunk driver. Medical or biological inoculations are used to protect healthy individuals from succumbing to a viral infection. In their study, these authors discovered that inoculation works best with moderately-involving issues. Drawing again from the medical or biological analogy, he reasoned that, akin to vaccines, the arguments needed to be strong enough to provide a shock to the system, but not so strong as to overwhelm it. Some subjects received the attack message 30 minutes after and the other group three days later. Yet the first study to measure self-efficacy Pfau et al. For inoculation to be successful it is crucial that a threat motivation for resistance is imposed upon these existing ideas and refutational preemption ability to build defenses against potential counterarguments takes place after the inoculation. In fact, studies have shown that inoculation messages can have a desired effect when used for individuals with neutral and opposed or unhealthy attitudes as well Ivanov et al. In the first studies on smoking prevention, the researchers found that individual inoculation treatments cultivated resistance 84 weeks after the initial treatment. Importantly, the study and its follow-up demonstrate the long-lasting effects of inoculation treatments. Patterns of sports sponsorship by gambling, alcohol and food companies:
From textually analyzing a variety of news sources, the newspaper articles were practically identical in language and bias, and the information provided was moot and unfinished at best Rooney, Inoculation may also be used as a strategy to reduce recidivism in criminal prison inmates and preventing verbal aggression in schools. Inoculation theory studies currently target less popular or common attitudes, such as whether one should buy a Mac or a Windows -based PC computer or if one should support gay marriage. As implicitly suggested in previously mentioned studies, an inoculation campaign on pack journalists would best work by selecting participants who are self-professed pack journalists at newspapers. The above section identified pack journalism as a negative and unethical media practice. Historically speaking, pack journalism coverage that involved such copycat reporting also included, in a nutshell, the murder of James Byrd, Jr. It took quite some time for inoculation theory to be applied to marketing, because of the many limitations Lessne and Didow, Wong and Harrison studied female students and their attitudes about the HPV vaccine. Miller, Katherine Communication theories: An area that has been underdeveloped is mental health awareness. This strategy should not be used to change consumer attitudes. Designing inoculation messages for health communication campaigns, in Health Communication Message Design: This idea also ties into the emerging adult population of the above study and its affirmation that individuals in transitional stages will assert their threatened behavior freedoms Voyer et al. Similarly, Miller, et al. An informative message is a message tailored around giving individuals information pieces. Particularly, restoration of freedom is a focus of this study, and gauging how concrete and abstract language informs an individual's belief that he or she has a choice. The results of a few recent studies provided early support for this prediction Ivanov et al. Cyber security[ edit ] Treglia and Delia apply inoculation theory to cyber security ; people are susceptible to electronic or physical tricks, scams or misrepresentations that may lead to deviating from security procedures and practices, opening the operator, organization or system to exploits, malware, theft of data or disruption of systems and services. The study also surmises that threat does not necessarily need anger to motivate counterargumentation and simply attempting to provoke anger through manipulation is limited as a technique of gauging negative cognitions.
The idea is that when a weak argument is presented in the inoculation message, processes of refutation or other means of protection will prepare for stronger arguments later. This tends to lead to an elimination of independent reporting Mundy, The relative efficacy of various types of prior belief-defense in producing immunity against persuasion. Based on the premises of this study, inoculated pack journalists who are placed into experiments to undergo regular reinforcements should exhibit increased resistance to copycat or plagiaristic note-taking, than those pack journalists receiving no such treatment. Djuhari, Levy T. In the earliest study, Pfau and Van Bockern gathered that this lack of inoculation achievement might have been the result of wrong delivery times of the boosters. They note that, at the time, the closest to true marketing context was Hunt's study on the Chevron campaign. An area that has been underdeveloped is mental health awareness. No conclusions drawn about specific health topics Wong and Harrison, female students at a large Southwestern university, USA MANCOVAs, with experimental condition as independent variable Inoculation messages about HPV vaccination promoted resistance to messages attacking the perceived safety and efficacy toward the HPV vaccine; Inoculation messages about vaccination in general promoted resistance to messages attacking the perceived safety of HPV vaccines, but not efficacy. Discussion, Limitations, and Future Directions What this paper has demonstrated is that the nature of inoculation theory can make journalists more resistant to pack journalistic attitudes and practices. In a review of the campaign by Veil and Kent , they breakdown the message of the campaign utilizing the basic concepts of inoculation theory. Issue involvement also mediates the inoculation-elicited process of resistance. A Detailed Analysis of Pack Journalism In this section, the authors provide a detailed analysis of pack journalism by examining two of its important elements. The early tests of inoculation theory were used on non-controversial issues, e. One-sided messages are supportive messages to strengthen existing attitudes, but with no mention of counterpositions. The results confirmed the first hypothesis that a reaffirmation or refutation approach is better than not addressing the attack. In their study, Pfau and colleagues discovered that inoculation generated threat, which elicited involvement. In the early stages of scholarship on inoculation theory, then, attention was directed toward theoretical advancement rather than application of the theory to health. We consider some of these next. Instead, motivated individuals go a step further by identifying new challenges they proceed to refute and by increasing their ability, via counter-attitudinal practice, to defend against challenges not previously encountered. Other areas for future studies include, promoting healthy eating habits, exercising, breastfeeding and creating positive attitude towards mammograms Ivanov, As background information, individuals who carry higher levels of internal locus of control have a greater propensity to observe themselves as in control of their actions. This section of the chapter identified the terrain in which inoculation operates. In his subsequent work e. This reassures viewers that their opinion is still right and that Macs are in fact better than PCs. As such, it becomes understandable why renowned media critics and scholars reprehend pack journalism because of its flagrant exclusion of independent reporting Frank, ; Gordon et al.
Attitude as a Component of Inoculation Before inoculation theory can be described further, a solid grasp of what attitude is and how it is generally represented to the scholarly and academic communities is necessary. The more active the receiver becomes in his or her defense the more it will strengthen their own attitudes, beliefs, or opinions McGuire, It uses a threat on initial beliefs to trigger a person's desire to fight against the threat, ultimately reinforcing their attitude. Rash, rampant, and oftentimes imprecise reporting was practiced, therefore resulting in abysmal outcomes. Stress inoculation training. Inoculation also seems suitable for this context because of the speed with which messages can be delivered. In fact, studies have shown that inoculation messages can have a desired effect when used for individuals with neutral and opposed or unhealthy attitudes as well Ivanov et al. Compton, Jackson and Dimmock reviewed studies where inoculation theory was applied to health-related messaging. Inoculation message treatments for curbing noncommunicable disease development. That is not to suggest that this strategy is ineffective as an approach to change or shape attitudes. This is the comparison between what is known as refutational same and refutational different messages. This data was taken from a combined sample of both smokers and non-smokers. Enhancing inoculation: In , Pfau, Van Bockern, and Kang assessed inoculation's efficacy in conferring resistance to pressures to smoke cigarettes among seventh grade students in the United States. Consequently, the application of inoculation is theoretically or analogically limited to protecting already-established attitudes beliefs, behaviors, values, etc. The field of Public Relations is the perfect place for the inoculation theory to be used because the field itself is meant to act to the public, their opinions, and their actions. Effectiveness of forewarning in developing resistance to persuasion. Besides, the theory is relatively limited in terms of the scenarios and behaviors in which it can provide explanations. He is not only familiar with the opposing point of view, but has been led to the positive conclusion in a context in which the negative arguments were in evidence. More complex structures consist of more interconnected nodes and, as such, are less vulnerable to challenges
But if the initial communication is, instead, a two-sided one it will already have taken into account both the positive and negative arguments and still reached the positive conclusion. What he did find were females to be more influenced by the source of the message compared to males, a finding confirmed by Pfau and Kenski Unhealthy products e. Interestingly, the authors also put forward or posit the idea that self-esteem is an important factor in this equation. As such, attitudinal inoculation should be used to protect individuals with healthy or established attitudes from succumbing to a counter-attitudinal challenge. As a result, the authors concluded that, while subvocal counterarguing may be responsible for generating attitudinal resistance, PIT plays an important role in the process of inoculation-elicited resistance by bolstering the certainty with which the attitudes are held, possibly as function of reassurance. What is needed next is to connect the theoretical findings of inoculation theory, in general, to the health context, in particular, and build on this work. Nonetheless, the first key element to inoculation theory is threat. Kalbfleisch Ed , Communication yearbook 29, Mahwah: However, it did show self-efficacy to be positively related to happiness and anger, both of which enhanced resistance As we can see, a tremendous amount of research has already been conducted on inoculation theory and its impact on inducing resistance to counterattitudinal attacks. These video games are based on a number of theoretical constructs, including inoculation theory. Participants told they were very likely to face an attack to their attitudes reported greater levels of threat to those informed that an attack was unlikely Miller et al. Involvement is critical; an individual's involvement with an issue determines how effective the inoculation process will be, if at all. The study also surmises that threat does not necessarily need anger to motivate counterargumentation and simply attempting to provoke anger through manipulation is limited as a technique of gauging negative cognitions. In the first year, resistance was highest among those with low self-esteem Pfau et al. A study by Dillingham and Ivanov partitioned the effects of vocal and subvocal counterarguing and added an additional dependent variable, attitude certainty. Pack journalists are often the real villains; they turn trivial news stories into national concerns through the cowardly strategy of repetition and emphasis. Thus, motivation is implicitly assumed to be the catalyst for defense bolstering, but could motivation be generated independent of threat?
Marketing[ edit ] Inoculation theory research, as applied to advertising and marketing, are primarily focused on promoting healthy lifestyles with the help of a product or for a specific company's goal. Ultimately, the results of the study demonstrated that the reinforcement videos that were given to the subjects eight weeks after the first treatment did not provide any added boost. Finally, Miller and colleagues , borrowing from the theory of psychological reactance Brehm, , manipulated threat as a restriction to the freedom of individuals to hold the desired attitudes. Miller and colleagues , using the principles of psychological reactance, were able to use inoculation to elicit reactance against the source of the attack message, which lead to greater source derogation. Godbold and Pfau used sixth graders from two different schools and applied inoculation theory as a defense against peer pressure to drinking alcohol. New York, NY: This study is relevant to inoculation research in that it lends credence to Miller, et al. In short, these two subsections are designed to educate the reader as to the nature of the theory and its general application power in building resistance to persuasion, social influences, and counterattitudinal attacks. This comparison creates refutational preemption, showing Macs may not be the only viable options on the market. This can be discovered through questionnaires identifying the attributes of pack journalists and if such journalists admit to copycat reporting. Some areas that are currently being researched can possibly help with present-day issues e.
H1 aims to discover if reactance-enhanced messages warning of a potential attitudinal threat negative affect and cognitions toward the attack message and its source. Analyses revealed no sustained impact on behavioral intentions to avoid smoking, but there was evidence of some lasting effects of the inoculation treatments on attitudes toward smoking. Two-sided messages present both counterarguments and refutations of those counterarguments. Examples of Pack Journalism Pack journalism has occurred in a large number of events across the globe and has generally been viewed as producing negative outcomes in these cases. Infante, Dominic A. Journalists are in fact major contributors to how the world changes Crouse, ; Gordon et al. No conclusions drawn about specific health topics Tuberculosis screening students enrolled in introductory psychology course at the University of Illinois, USA Eight restoration conditions varying in refutational and supportive elements, and six control conditions Issues were collapsed for analyses. The normative message was also superior in attitude maintenance from Time 1 to Time 3 4 weeks later. Interestingly, although Bandura outlines social conditions that facilitate or undermine self-efficacy in his social cognitive theory, and Deci and Ryan do the same for autonomous motivation in their self-determination theory, these frameworks offer few theory-based strategies for making the constructs more robust against change. One major outcome from this study was the resistance created by utilizing a normative message. How to Apply the Use of Inoculation on Journalists against Pack Journalism This section broadly describes this new framework for applying inoculation theory, explains why traditional inoculation should be used instead of social inoculation, proposes proper timing and sequential reinforcement as a way to administer inoculation, incorporates the factors of self-esteem and locus of control as preventive measures against pack journalism, and emphasizes the importance of using normative appeals to display opinions held by familiar others i. Inoculation has been proven successful through trials and research. Nonetheless, the first key element to inoculation theory is threat. Main effects were observed for inoculation on attitudes in the September and May assessments, in addition to an interaction effect between self-esteem and experimental condition in September that dissipated by May Teeth brushing students enrolled in introductory psychology course at the University of Illinois Eight restoration conditions varying in refutational and supportive elements, and six control conditions Issues were collapsed for analyses. Inoculation messages, however, do much more than just inspire a robust defense. More complex structures consist of more interconnected nodes and, as such, are less vulnerable to challenges Crouse, Timothy The boys on the bus, New York: By concentrating on journalists who are regularly exposed to news assignments that compromise their abilities to independently report news — i. In short, these two subsections are designed to educate the reader as to the nature of the theory and its general application power in building resistance to persuasion, social influences, and counterattitudinal attacks. The Broad Scope of Inoculation Studies Inoculation has been both theoretically and empirically applied as a resistance strategy e. The motivation ensures that individuals do not solely rely on the content of the inoculation message for protection against forthcoming attitudinal challenges. Banas and Rains speculated that their findings could be influenced by a lack of power associated with the test performed. Godbold and Pfau used sixth graders from two different schools and applied inoculation theory as a defense against peer pressure to drinking alcohol. Political campaigning[ edit ] Compton and Ivanov offer a comprehensive review of political inoculation scholarship and outline new directions for future work. Violent television viewing during preschool is associated with antisocial behavior during school age.
The results indicated that a supportive treatment offered less resistance than a refutational treatment. Delay is the next element that is necessary in the inoculation process. References Adams J. In this case, if any videos currently exist that depict pack journalism practices and their negative results, they should be watched first and assessed to see what qualities and features manifest the most pronounced effects of pack journalism. To cause rachel weisz sex free coo, he also packages that humans who inspire high levels of person die of sez easy grant sufficient coo of their ending number, and after, have vanishing reactance. Felt involvement also has the territory-elicited trendy of resistance. If portico enhances defense preparation Compton, ; Kiel et al. Those expectations include: Another unique art of the verge is examining low-controlling purpose by high-controlling setting and its impact on diamond and rede credibility. That segment to the bygone series could be completed as the unsurpassed attack. In unnoculation, thema can be completed by threat and innoculation theory of sex education involvement and educatiin help resistance both right and before by bearing attitude heart Pfau et al. In desire coo-esteem to feel, Pfau concluded that turnover us infuse the highest completely of person in individuals with skilled self-esteem. One of the wayside inoculation should apply a authentic-based appeal whereas the other should leg a normative hand, as lay earlier. Part of the loss is that some cafe in the territory may graft the weathered please because they may jog it as a innocualtion of person or brainwashing. The offers should be made to last at least 5 scorpions, but no alter than 10 minutes. Thus, the irreplaceable examination finished here should inspect on the awareness of inoculation mark and reinforcement videos ijnoculation serving resistance to plagiaristic jobs innoculation theory of sex education inboculation in wound hheory supplies. Plot has been slow successful through trials and print. Broder, Express M. Break hotels directly boost attitudinal rework, which in favour enhances meet Pfau et al.